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Star Explosion That Outshone Its Entire Galaxy By A Million Times

7 August, 2013


MessageToEagle.com - Astronomers have discovered the distant light from a star that exploded more than 12 billion years ago, ripping itself apart and blasting its remains outward in twin jets at nearly the speed of light.

At its death it glowed so brightly that it outshone its entire galaxy by a million times. This brilliant flash traveled across space for 12.7 billion years to a planet that hadn't even existed at the time of the explosion - our Earth.

By analyzing this light, astronomers learned about a galaxy that was otherwise too small, faint and far away for even the Hubble Space Telescope to see.



Click on image to enlarge

This artist's illustration depicts a gamma-ray burst illuminating clouds of interstellar gas in its host galaxy. By analyzing a recent gamma-ray burst, astronomers were able to learn about the chemistry of a galaxy 12.7 billion light-years from Earth. They discovered it contains only one-tenth of the heavy elements (metals) found in our solar system. Credit: Gemini Observatory/AURA, artwork by Lynette Cook


"This star lived at a very interesting time, the so-called dark ages just a billion years after the Big Bang," says lead author Ryan Chornock of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).

"In a sense, we're forensic scientists investigating the death of a star and the life of a galaxy in the earliest phases of cosmic time," he adds.

The star announced its death with a flash of gamma rays, an event known as a gamma-ray burst (GRB). GRB 130606A was classified as a long GRB since the burst lasted for more than four minutes.

It was detected by NASA's Swift spacecraft on June 6th. Chornock and his team quickly organized follow-up observations by the MMT Telescope in Arizona and the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii.

"We were able to get right on target in a matter of hours," Chornock says. "That speed was crucial in detecting and studying the afterglow."



Click on image to enlarge

Before light from the gamma-ray burst arrives at the Earth for astronomers to study, it passes through interstellar gas in its host galaxy (close-up view, left), and intergalactic gas between the distant galaxy and us (wide view, right). This gas filters the light by absorbing some colors and leaves a signature on the light that can be seen in its spectrum. This "signature" allows scientists to characterize the gamma-ray burst, its environment, and the material between us and the distant galaxy. Credit: Gemini Observatory/AURA, artwork by Lynette Cook


Chornock and his colleagues found that the GRB galaxy contained only about one-tenth of the metals in our solar system.

Theory suggests that although rocky planets might have been able to form, life probably could not thrive yet.

"At the time this star died, the universe was still getting ready for life. It didn't have life yet, but was building the required elements," says Chornock.

At a redshift of 5.9, or a distance of 12.7 billion light-years, GRB 130606A is one of the most distant gamma-ray bursts ever found.

The team's results will be published in the Sept. 1 issue of The Astrophysical Journal and are available online.


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See also:
Extraordinary Phoenix Galaxy Cluster - One Of The Largest Objects In The Universe With Record-Breaking Star Formation

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